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Q: Does the LM-1/LC-1 really ship with a wideband O2 sensor?

A: Yes, both the LC-1 and LM-1 ship with the Bosch LSU-4.2 wideband, 5 wire oxygen sensor. All Innovate widebands igrnore the calibration resistor present in the sensor, but instead calibrates digitally, and with better results.

Q: What is the target lambda reading for my vehicle's engine?

A: It depends. There are many factors that can affect the air/fuel ratio for your vehicle. Particularly at idle, many engines will show a lean lambda (lambda of greater than 1) when this is perfectly OK. For example diesel engines run this way. Other engines, at low speed experience "valve overlap" where the intake valves are opening while the exhaust valves are closing. This will cause oxygen to "leak" into the exhaust, raising the observed lambda. However high lambda values can also signal that the oxygen sensor is not fully immersed in the exhaust gases. For example, we have seen lambda measurements on motorcycles yield false lean readings due to the low exhaust pressure. By covering the exhaust, and eliminating outside oxygen from crossing the sensor, accurate lambda readings were gathered. In general, however, optimum horsepower is achieved between 0.85 and 0.90 lambda (12.45 AFR to 13.2 AFR using regular gasoline).

Q: When do I need to make or install a heat sink?

A: The Bosch LSU4.2 wide-band O2 sensor (shipped as part of the LM-1 kit) is rated to operate at an exhaust gas temperature of < 1300 degrees (F), and a sensor housing temperature of < 900 degrees (measured at the bung) for maximum accuracy and control. When either of these operating temperature ranges is exceeded, the sensor can no longer be accurately controlled. Further, operating at or over these temperatures for any length of time can significantly reduce the lifetime of the sensor. The LM-1 is designed to display an error message under these conditions (currently 08- Sensor Timing Error) rather than provide inaccurate readings. For some turbo vehicles, rotary engines, and other setups, this error message can be encountered with annoying frequency.

Q: How do I make a heat sink?

A: Take a 4-5” square piece of copper (optimal) or aluminum, and punch/drill a hole just big enough to fit over the threads of the O2 sensor. Bend it so that there are two “wings on either side of the sensor. Mount the heat fin between the sensor and the sensor washer. We recommend 0.0647" thickness 4" x 4". (Or you can buy the Innovate HBX-1).

Q: Does your meter have an analog output?

A: Yes it does. It has two analog outputs usable for a maximum range of 0.5 to 1.523 Lambda (7.35 to 22.39 AFR). The resolution for the outputs is 10 bits 0-5 Volt (0.00489V steps). The Output Voltage over Lambda curves for each output are freely and independently programmable with the included software. See the LM-1 Manual in the support section of our web-site in section 9.6 'Programming the analog outputs' for information on how to program the outputs. See section 11.1 on how to connect an analog output of the LM-1 to simulate a narrow band sensor. Section A.1 shows the pinout and type of the output connector. As shipped, one output simulates a typical narrow band oxygen sensor, the other one is programmed to show AFR/10 for gasoline on a digital voltmeter (for example AFR of 14.7 outputs 1.47V). These analog outputs, once programmed, can be used to drive a closed-loop EMS, to feed a data logging system, or to drive an external display. Very careful attention has to be paid to grounding. It will not work reliably through the cigarette lighter. Optimally use the same ground that the data logger or ECU uses.

Q: Can the analog output of the LM-1 provide the voltage straight from the sensor for the fuel injection computer?

A: The LM-1 can provide a wide-band AFR output, but it can't completely simulate connection to a wideband sensor (i.e. if your ECU tries to control the heater or the pump cell, it won't work).

Q: Does the LM-1 work with turbo-charged engines?
A: Yes.

Q: After testing the unit out at idle for ~10-15 minutes I got a sensor timing error. I turned off the LM-1 and cycled it back on and it's been fine since. Is this anything to worry about? What causes this error?
A: The Bosch sensor runs optimally at 750-800 deg C Sensor Temp. If the sensor head gets heated by the exhaust to that temperature or above there is no more margin for the heater controller and it runs essentially 'open loop', shutting the heater off. That's why a cooler location is better. Also, (and more importantly) the Bosch sensor has a parasitic resistance in the common path between the pump-cell and the measurement cell. This resistance has a positive temperature coefficient (resistance increases with temp) and is dependent on the sensor's housing temperature. Because it is buried inside the sensor it cannot be directly measured. When measuring the sense-cell impedance or pump-cell impedance it is essentially in series with either. Both, sense-cell and pump-cell impedance, have a negative temperature coefficient. Because the heater control of the Bosch unit depends on either the sense-cell or pump-cell impedance, this parasitic resistance can disrupt the temperature control by essentially compensating the negative coeff. of either when the housing gets too hot. This means that no temperature control is possible and the resultant values would be all over the map. Both the LM-1 and LC-1 can detect that condition and throws a sensor timing error because the sensor timing with our circuit is one of the variables that is dependent on the sensor housing temp.

The net of all this is that the sensor should be installed as close to the cat as possible, and (in non-cat applications) at least 12" away from the end of the exhaust.

Q: What fuels does the O2 sensor work with?

A: Gasoline, LPG (Propane), Methanol, Ethanol, CNG, and Diesel.

Q: What is the LM-1 warranty like?

A: 6 months guarantee against workmanship defects on LM-1. Customer ships to factory, we replace or repair, and we pay shipping back to customer. Sensors are NOT covered (there are too many things folks can do to damage). Warranty is void if unit is used improperly (as described in manual). We 100% stand behind everything we make. For more information click here.

Q: I don't live in the US, but have to get my hands on one of these new units! Can you tell me what the shipping cost (estimated) will be and the weight of the shipped unit?

A: We do sell and ship to international customers.

Q: I'd like to see the manuals

A. Here they are

Q: Have you tested the accuracy of your WB against other high end units? What were the results?

A: So far, we've tested the LM-1 against certified, precision-mixed gasses – an absolute reference. Please check the ongoing thread of this topic on our forum.

Q: What is the accuracy of the LM-1 and LC-1?

A: +/- 0.1 AFR

Q: Will it be possible to setup the analog output for a linear 0 to 1 volt = 10:1 to 30:1 air fuel? And what is the accuracy of the output?

A: The outputs are 10 bit A/D's with 0-5V output. The software in the LM-1 maps Lambda Values of 0.5 to 1.523 (7.35 to 22.4 AFR) into a 10 bit value (0..1023). The programming of the analog outputs then maps the programmed values to the appropriate output voltages. An output of 0 - 1V has about a 200 step resolution as this is 1/5 of the 0-5V output with 1023 step resolution.The mapping is capable of 7.35 to 22.4 AFR. A range of 10-30 AFR would require significant changes in the software of the LM-1.

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